- References could be improved
There are two approaches to health science: the study and research of the food that we eat; and the study and research of health-related issues to understand how humans and other animals function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases.
Health research builds upon the natural sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics as well as a variety of multidisciplinary fields. Some of the other primarily research-oriented fields that make contributions to health science are biochemistry, epidemiology, genetics, and pharmacology (for a more comprehensive list, see List of health science disciplines).
A myriad of applied health specializations and professions also endeavor to better understand health, but in addition they try to directly improve the health of individuals and of people in general, as well as of other animals (see veterinary medicine). Some of these are: biomedical engineering, biotechnology, clinical laboratory science, medicine, nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, public health, psychology, and physical therapy. The provision of services to improve people's health is referred to as health care.
The health sciences industry, a multi-billion dollar business sector, is a cross-section of the life sciences and the health care and medical diagnostics industries.
- 1 Acquisition of health-related knowledge
- 2 Application of health-related knowledge (health care)
- 3 History of health science
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Medical research is basic and applied research conducted to improve the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials, or to develop new treatments (referred to as preclinical research) or to better scale up health care interventions and improve health systems (e.g. health systems research and evidence based health care).
The increased longevity of humans over the past century is due in large part to medical research. Among the major advancements in medicine have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin treatment for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and other treatments for atherosclerosis, new surgical techniques such as microsurgery, and increasingly successful treatments for cancer. New, beneficial tests and treatments are expected as a result of the human genome project. Many challenges remain, however, including the appearance of antibiotic resistance, the obesity epidemic, and notably, the paucity of knowledge on how to better organize health care delivery.
Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. According to the World Health Organization, health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including â€œpreventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populationsâ€. The organized provision of such services may constitute a health care system. This can include a specific governmental organization such as the National Health Service in the UK, or a cooperation across the National Health Service and Social Services as in shared care.
There is a wide range of traditional areas of health care. The most common areas are: medicine, nursing, midwifery, pharmacy, dentistry, clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics), and various forms of therapy to supplement the healing process and restore proper activity (e.g. dietetics, recreational, physical, occupational, orthoptic care, speech, and respiratory).
There are many different branches of medicine; the other health care professions also have specialties or focus on specific populations or settings of care. Public health studies the effect of environmental factors such as available health care resources on the health of the general population, often focusing on particular populations, such as mothers and children. Dietitians educate people about proper nutrition, particularly specific dietary needs of populations such as people with diabetes, breastfeeding women, and people with celiac disease. Other less common medical areas include first aid and triage.
Dental health has grown in importance in recent decades making dentistry a major field of health sciences. Counselling, hospice care, home care, nutrition, medical social work, alternative medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology are all considered part of health science.
Clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics) is also a major field of health sciences.
Veterinary medicine is the health science dedicated exclusively to the care of animals. Veterinary medicine is involved in preventing and curing animal diseases and disorders, inspecting animal-originated food (such as milk and meat) and animal husbandry.
Conventional Western practices
- Athletic training
- Clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics)
- Evidence-based medicine
- Genetic counseling
- Medical physics
- Obstetrics, including Midwifery
- Occupational therapy
- Physical therapy (physiotherapy)
- Prosthetics and Orthotics
- Psychology, including Animal, Behavioural, Clinical, Health, Medical, Neuropsychology and others
- Psychotherapy, including Cognitive therapy
- Public health
- Physical education
- Speech-Language Pathology
- Surgery, including anaesthesiology
- Veterinary medicine
- Blood letting
- Heroic medicine
- Magnet therapy
- Patent medicine
- []visit this site to have more information about science health
Complementary and alternative medicine
- Alexander Technique
- Dorn method
- Holistic health
- Massage therapy
- Natural medicine
- Naturopathic medicine
- Orthomolecular medicine
- Traditional Chinese medicine
Because health science deals with human life, issues of medical ethics, an important area of ethics, arise frequently. Medical ethics includes questions on topics such as a patient's right to privacy and his/her right to be involved in treatment and decision-making. Euthanasia, abortion, human cloning, stem cell research and genetic engineering are especially controversial issues directly related to health science. Evidence based health care focuses on integrating research evidence with context and values to better guide policies and practice. An example of initiatives that take this approach to improve public health policy is the Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) of the World Health Organization.
History of health science
The foundations for the Health Sciences fields are as old as the human race. Humans have always been in need of solutions to address illness, injury, and various health related issues such as childbirth. With modern technology and the backing of the pure sciences, the scientific accuracy of these fields has greatly improved. Nevertheless, many cultures have used and continue to use various herbs and other culturally specific solutions to help solve health problems that may or may not be backed by any scientific support.To have more information about health science please visit,http://studymesothelioma.com/
- Academic health science centre
- Biomedical engineering
- Biomedical informatics
- Biomedical research
- Biomedical technology
- Emergency medical services
- Evidence-based medicine
- Health care, Acronyms in healthcare
- Health economics
- History of medicine
- List of health sciences topics
- Medical Encyclopedia
- Medical ethics
- Medical informatics
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Preventive medicine
- Public health
- Publicly-funded health care
- World Health Organization (2000). Why do health systems matter?. WHO.
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
- The US National Library of Medicine
- Health Science Researchers, Jobs and Discussions
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