|Created by||International Auxiliary Language Association (1951)|
|Setting and usage||international auxiliary language, most popular in Scandinavia and North America|
|Total speakers||First language: none known
Second language: about 1500
|Category (purpose)||constructed language
|Category (sources)||Romance and Neolatin?based|
|Regulated by||no regulating body|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.|
The constructed language Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). In appearance, Interlingua combines a Latin-Romance vocabulary with a simplified Romance grammar, and thus it is often referred to as a modernized and simplified Latin. It is sometimes called IALA Interlingua to distinguish it from the other uses of interlingua.
- 1 Rationale
- 2 History
- 3 Vocabulary
- 4 Phonology and spelling
- 5 Grammar
- 6 Community
- 7 Criticisms and controversies
- 8 Samples
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
- 12 Introduction
- 13 Historia
- 14 Grammatica
- 15 Vocabulario
- 16 Movimento
- 17 Pioneros de interlingua
- 18 Litteratura in Interlingua
- 19 Vide etiam
- 20 Referentias
- 21 Ligamines externe
The expansive movements of science, technology, trade, diplomacy, and the arts, combined with the historical dominance of the Greek and Latin languages, have resulted in a large common vocabulary among Western languages. Interlingua uses an algorithm to extract and standarize the most widespread word (or, occasionally, words) for a concept found in a set of control languages (English, French, Italian, and Spanish/Portuguese, with German and Russian as secondary references). The resulting vocabulary corresponds closely with the Neolatin element in the International Scientific Vocabulary.
Interlingua combines this pre-existing vocabulary with a minimalist grammar based on the control languages. People with a good knowledge of a Romance language, or a smattering of a Romance language plus a good knowledge of the international scientific vocabulary can frequently read it at first sight. Because at-sight comprehensibility was a design criterion, Interlingua retains the traditional spelling and morphology of its Latinate source material. It is for this reason that Interlingua is frequently termed a naturalistic IAL (as opposed schematic IALs such as Esperanto and Ido, which are less closely tied to their source languages).
Ultimate credit for Interlingua must go to the American heiress Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874?1950), who became interested in linguistics and the international auxiliary language movement in the early 1920s. In 1923, Morris and her husband, David Hennen Morris, founded the non-profit International Auxiliary Language Association in New York. Their aim was to place the study of IALs on a scientific basis. IALA became a major supporter of mainstream American linguistics, funding, for example, Edward Sapir's cross-linguistic semantic studies of totality (1930) and grading phenomena (1944). Morris herself edited Sapir and Morris Swadesh's 1932 cross-linguistic study of ending-point phenomena, and William Edward Collinson's 1937 study of indication. Although the Morrises provided most of IALA's funding, it also received support from such prestigious groups as the Carnegie Corporation, the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation.
In its early years, IALA concerned itself with three tasks: finding other organizations around the world with similar goals; building a library of books about languages and interlinguistics; and comparing extant IALs, including Esperanto, Esperanto II, Ido, Latino Sine Flexione, Novial, and Occidental. In pursuit of this last goal it arranged conferences with proponents of these IALs, debating features and goals of their representative language. However, with a "concession rule" that required participants to make a certain number of concessions, the debates were forestalled from changing from heated to explosive.
During the Second International Interlanguage Congress in Geneva in 1931, the IALA began to break new ground, as its conference was attended (and its efforts legitimized) by eminent linguists who were not members of the IALA.
1933 was a major year for the IALA. First, Professor Herbert H. Shenton of Syracuse University founded an intense study about the problems that had been encountered in interlanguages when used in international conferences. Later, Dr. Edward L. Thorndike published a paper about the relative learning speeds of "natural" and "modular" constructed languages. Although neither was a member of the IALA, both were major influences on its work from then on.
In 1937, the first steps towards the finalization of Interlingua were made, when a committee 24 linguists from 19 universities around the world published Some Criteria for an International Language and Commentary (English title). However, the intended biannual meetings of the committee was cut short by the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Development of a new language
From the beginning, the IALA had not set out to create its own language, but rather to identify which international language already extant would be the best suited to the task, and how best to promote it. However, after ten years of research, more and more members of the IALA came to the conclusion that none of the extant interlanguages were up to the task. By 1937, the decision to create a new language had been arrived at, a decision that surprised the world's interlanguage community.
Although much of the debate had been to that point evenly balanced over the decision to use naturalistic (e.g., Novial and Occidental) or systematic (e.g., Esperanto and Ido) words, during the war years, those supporting a naturalistic interlanguage won out. The first support was Dr. Thorndike's paper; the second was the concession by those supporting systematic languages that thousands of words were already extant in many (or even a majority) of the European languages. Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was a Procrustian bed, forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a new derivation scheme when there was already a usable corpus of vocabulary. This finally convinced those who supported systematic languages, and the IALA from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language would be best.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, IALA's research activities were moved from Liverpool to New York, where E. Clark Stillman established a new research staff. Stillman, with the assistance of Dr. Alexander Gode, developed a prototyping technique -- an objective methodology for selecting and standardizing vocabulary based on a comparison of control languages.
- Model P was a naturalistic model that made no attempt to regularize the prototyped vocabulary.
- Model E was lightly schematicized along the lines of Occidental.
- Model K was moderately schematicized along the lines of Ido (i.e., somewhat less schematicized than Esperanto).
From 1946?48, the French linguist Andrï¿½ Martinet was Director of Research. During this period IALA continued to develop models and conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the final language. An initial survey gauged reactions to the three models of 1945. In 1946 an extensive survey was sent to more than 3000 language teachers and related professionals on three continents.
Four models were canvassed: Model P and K, plus two new models similar to Model E of 1945.
|ï¿½||Modelï¿½P||ï¿½||highlyï¿½naturalistic||ï¿½||Jo habe nascite, o dea cum le oculos azure, de parentes barbare, inter le bone et virtuose Cimmerios|
|ï¿½||Modelï¿½M||ï¿½||moderatelyï¿½naturalistic||ï¿½||Io have nascit, o dea con le ocules azur, de parentes barbar, inter le bon e virtuos Cimmerios|
|ï¿½||Modelï¿½C||ï¿½||slightlyï¿½schematic||ï¿½||Yo ha nascet, o deessa con le ocules azur, de parentes barbar, inter le bon e virtuose Cimerios|
|ï¿½||Modelï¿½K||ï¿½||moderatelyï¿½schematic||ï¿½||Yo naskeba, o dea kon le okuli azure, de parenti barbare, inter le bone e virtuose Kimerii|
|ï¿½||(English)||ï¿½||'I was born, O goddess with the blue eyes, of barbarian relations, among the good and virtuous Cimmerians'|
|ï¿½||(modern Interlingua)||ï¿½||Io ha nascite, o dea con le oculos azur, de parentes barbar, inter le bon e virtuose Cimmerios|
Model P was unchanged from 1945; Model K was slightly modified in the direction of Ido.
The survey results were surprising. The two more schematic models, C and K, were rejected (K overwhelmingly). Of the two naturalistic models, M attracted somewhat more support than P. Taking national biases into account (for example, the French who were polled disproportionately favored Model M), IALA decided on a compromise between models M and P, with certain elements of C.
Upon Martinet's resignation in 1948 to take up a position at Columbia University, Gode took on the last phase of Interlingua's development. His task was to combine elements of Model M and Model P, while taking the flaws seen in both by the polled community and repairing them with elements of Model C as necessary, while simultaneously developing a vocabulary.
The vocabulary and verb conjugations of Interlingua were initially published in 1951. In 1951, the IALA published the finalized grammar, a 27,000-word dictionary (Interlingua to English only), and an introductory book entitled Interlingua a Prime Vista ("Interlingua at First Sight").
An early practical application of Interlingua was the scientific newsletter Spectroscopia Molecular (published 1952?1980). In 1954 Interlingua was employed at the Second World Cardiological Congress, in Washington DC, for both written summaries and oral interpretation. Within a few years it found similar use at nine further medical congresses. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided article summaries in Interlingua. Science News Service, the publisher at the time of Science Newsletter, published a monthly column in Interlingua from the early nineteen-fifties until Gode's death in 1970.
Today, Interlingua is promoted primarily by the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (president: Barbara Rubinstein, Sweden; secretary-general: Petyo Angelov, Bulgaria). Periodicals and books are produced by various national organizations, including the Societate American pro Interlingua (president: Dr. Stanley Mulaik) and the Svenska Sï¿½llskapet fï¿½r Interlingua (secretary: Ingvar Stenstrï¿½m).
Currently, Panorama In Interlingua is the most prominent Interlingua periodical. It is a 28-page newsletter published bimonthly that covers news, science, and editorials. Interlingua has seen a resurgence over the last decade thanks to the Internet, with the number of speakers jumping tenfold by some estimates.
The IALA set up a control group of five widely-known languages with much shared vocabulary, grouped into four units: French, Italian, Spanish/Portuguese (treated as one unit), and English. A word is eligible for Interlingua if it occurs with similar meanings in three of these four units. Secondary controls are originally German and Russian. Self-explanatory compounds can be included with support from at least one source language. Grammatical words, required to operate the language, are taken from Latin if this procedure fails.
The forms of Interlingua words are based on the historical or hypothetical forms from which the national forms evolved. Derivational series are also considered. Though French oeil, Italian occhio, Spanish ojo and Portuguese olho ("eye") are quite different, they descend from a historical form oculus. This, and international derivatives like ocular and oculista, determine the form oculo to be used in Interlingua.
New words can be created internally, through derivational affixes, or extracted from the control languages in the manner of the original vocabulary. Internal word-building, though freer than in the control languages, is more restricted than in schematic IALs such as Esperanto and Ido. Most Interlingua dictionaries include only words with support in the control languages.
Interlingua as now used tends to have less Classical Latin vocabulary than the IALA's original version, replaced in part by southern Romance vocabulary. For example emer ("to buy") has been mostly replaced by comprar; sed ("but") with ma or mais; and nimis ("too") with troppo. However, other classical Latin words, such as "pro" ("for"), "contra" ("against"), "post" ("after") and "ergo" ("therefore") are retained because they are seen as more internationally understandable than their Romance counterparts.
Phonology and spelling
The pronunciation is similar to ecclesiastical Latin. For the most part, the consonants are like English, while the vowels are like Spanish or Italian, [a, ?~e, i, ?~o, u]. Four vowel pairs (AI, AU, EU, OI) are pronounced as falling diphthongs ([aj, aw, ew, oj]). Notable exceptions are as follows:
- C is "soft" ([ts]) before e, i, or y; otherwise "hard" [k].
- CH is most often [k] and is used before e, i, or y or in words of Greek origin. In many words, especially of French origin, it has the sound of English sh (choc, chenille, chef, chimpanze, chocolate, cheque). [?]. In a few loanwords it takes the English or Spanish ch sound [t?] (microchip).
- G is "hard" ([g]), except in the sequences -age and -agi- (preceding a vowel), where it has the sound of French j.
- H is silent in the combinations rh and th ([r] and ([t]).
- I is like English y [j] before another vowel, unless stressed (union [u'njon], via ['via]).
- J is French j [?].
- Q is [k] and occurs almost exclusively in the combination qu [kw].
- PH is [f] in words of Greek origin.
- R is lightly rolled or trilled [?], [r], as in Italian or Spanish.
- TI becomes [tsj] before a vowel, except if the 'i is stressed or in the combination -sti- (nation [na'tsjon]; but politia [poli'tia], question [kwe'stjon].
- U is [w] before another vowel, unless stressed (continuar [konti'nwar], duo ['duo].
- Y has the same value as I.
Double consonants are pronounced as single (fila ['fila], illa ['ila]).
Alternative pronunciations are permitted for some letters and combinations:
- Some speakers pronounce "soft" C as [s] rather than [ts].
- Many speakers pronounce EU like English oy ([oj]).
- H is optionally silent in all positions.
- Many speakers pronounce J and "soft" G like English j [d?].
- P is optionally silent in initial pn-, ps-, and pt-.
- QU is pronounced qu as [k] before e or i by some speakers . Almost all speakers pronounce the particles que and qui as [ke, ki].
- S may be pronounced [z] between two vowels. SS is always [s].
- Some speakers pronounce the "soft" TI as [sj] rather than [tsj]. A few keep it "hard" ([tj]).
- X may be pronounced [gz] between two vowels.
The stress falls on one of the last three syllables of a word. It most often falls on the vowel before the last consonant of a word (e.g., lingua, esser, requirimento). The following rules account for most of exceptions:
- Verbs in the future tense are stressed on the final -a (io scribera 'I shall write').
- Verbs in the conditional tense are stressed on the final -ea (e.g. il esserea sage 'it would be wise').
- Words (except verbs) ending in -le, -ne, or -re are stressed on the third-last syllable (fragile, margine, altere; but illa impone 'she imposes').
- Words ending in -ica/-ico, -ide/-ido and -ula/-ulo, are stressed on the third-last syllable (politica, scientifico, rapide, stupido, capitula, seculo).
- Words ending in -ic are stressed on the second-last syllable (cubic).
Users may depart from the preferred stress for a word, provided this does not interfere with communication. For example, kilometro and kilometro are both acceptable, although kilometro is preferred for etymological reasons.
The original specifications for Interlingua (1951) provided for an alternative, simplified orthography. This differed from the "classic" orthography primarily by
- dropping double consonants(application → aplication), and
- simplifying the spelling of words derived from Greek:
- CH ([k]) becomes C except before E and I (character → caracter; but oligarchic is unchanged)
- PH becomes F (telephono → telefono)
- RH becomes R (rhetorica → retorica)
- TH becomes T (theatro → teatro)
- Y (vowel) becomes I (mytho → mito).
Some current users apply the simplified spelling of Greek-derived words, but almost all retain the double consonants.
The grammar of Interlingua is based on that of the Romance languages, but simplified, primarily under the influence of English. Grammatical features absent from any of the primary control languages were dropped. For example, there is neither adjectival agreement (Spanish gatos negros 'black cats'), since this feature is absent in English, nor continuous verb tenses (English I am reading), since they are absent in French. The definite article le is invariable, as in English.
The verb system is a simplified version of the systems found in English and the Romance languages. Except (optionally) for esser 'to be', there are no personal inflections, and the indicative also covers the subjunctive and imperative moods. Three common verbs usually take short forms in the present tense. A few other irregular verb forms are available though little used.
There are four simple tenses/moods (the present, past, and future tenses and the conditional mood) and four compound tenses/moods/voices (the past and future tenses, the conditional mood, and the passive voice). These compound structures employ an auxiliary plus the infinitive or the past participle. Simple and compound tenses can be combined in various ways to express more complex tenses (e.g., Nos haberea morite 'We would have died').
Word order is essentially Subject?Verb?Object, except that pronouns often follow the Romance pattern Subject?Object?Verb (Io les vide 'I see them'). Adjectives may precede or follow the nouns they modify. The position of adverbs is flexible, though constrained by common sense.
Estimates of the number of speakers of Interlingua range from as few as 100 to as many as 10,000. The majority of conservative estimates, however, place the number of active users of Interlingua at between 1,000 and 1,500. There are no known native speakers.
Interlingua has active supporters in North and South America, Europe (particularly Scandinavia), and Russia. There are Interlingua web pages (including editions of Wikipedia and Wikitionary) and several periodicals, including Panorama in Interlingua from the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI) and the magazines of the national societies allied with it. There are several active mailing lists, and Interlingua is also in use in certain Usenet newsgroups, particularly in the europa hierarchy. In recent years, samples of Interlingua have also been seen in music and animï¿½.
Every two years, the UMI organizes an international conference in a different European country; the most recent conference (2005), in Sweden, was attended by slightly over 250 people. In the year between, the Scandinavian Interlingua societies co-organize a conference in Sweden.
Interlingua may well be the most widely spoken international auxiliary language (IAL) after Esperanto, although the estimated number of speakers overlaps with that of Ido. It is also claimed to be the most widely understood IAL by virtue of its naturalistic (as opposed to schematic) grammar and vocabulary, allowing those familiar with one of the primary control languages to read and understand it with little study.
Criticisms and controversies
Like any project of such scope, Interlingua has generated some heated discussion, both among Interlingua users and among non-users (frequently proponents of other auxiliary languages). Some common criticisms (and their common responses) are noted below.
- Some say that Interlingua is too Romance in its grammar and vocabulary, and is not fair towards Germanic languages. Its defenders note that the Romance languages, being based on Latin, have the advantage in the linguistic impact of the old Roman Empire, which is still seen today in that a Romance language is spoken on five out of seven continents; the only Germanic languages with an international scope are English (which is already a primary language) and German (which is already a secondary language). However, Spanish, which has a very regular grammar and inflectional system compared to other Romance languages, and is quite easy for English-speakers to learn, has threatened to obviate the need for not only Interlingua but Esperanto and Ido, especially in the United States, where Spanish is the most common second language studied. (In fact, there is debate in the Interlingua community as to expanding the language's sources to other languages; see Creation de nove parolas in Interlingua (in Interlingua) for an overview of the debate.)
- Others note that Interlingua, being European in nature, is primarily of use to Europeans. Interlingua supporters point out that Esperanto, despite being based on Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages, has some of its strongest communities in China and Japan, where the local languages are totally unrelated to the Indo-European languages. (See color argument.)
- Finally, some argue that Esperantists outnumber Interlingua users to such a degree (estimates range from 50:1 to 1000:1) that anyone interested in promoting an auxiliary language should support Esperanto instead. Supporters counter that it is a lot easier to understand Interlingua without training than Esperanto, because Interlingua uses the most widespread words of the Romance languages, whereas Esperanto makes up many of its own words according to internal rules. For example, one can speak Interlingua with anyone who knows Italian or Spanish. One will even be understood by Portuguese speakers, but will have difficulty understanding them. Whereas if one tries to communicate in Esperanto to speakers of these other languages one will have very limited success.
|Scientistas varia justo como nos alteros. Il ha sapientes e fatuos, sobrios e dissipatos, solitarios e gregarios, corteses e inciviles, puritanos e licentiosos, industriosos e pigros, et cetera. Como genere illes exhibi certe tendentias. Per exemplo, illes es totos de alte intelligentia. Le scientista pote esser stupide re certe cosas, ma ille debe haber le basic potentia mental que es requirite pro devenir scientista; ille non pote esser moron in le stricte senso psychometric.||Scientists vary just like the rest of us. There are the wise and the foolish, the sober and the dissipated, the solitary and the gregarious, the courteous and the rude, the puritanical and the licentious, the industrious and the lazy, and so on. As a type they exhibit certain tendencies. For example, they are all of high intelligence. The scientist may be stupid about certain things, but he must have the basic mental capacity that is required to become a scientist; he cannot be a moron in the strict psychometric sense.|
- Nostre Patre, qui es in le celos,
- que tu nomine sia sanctificate;
- que tu regno veni;
- que tu voluntate sia facite
- super le terra como etiam in le celo.
- Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian,
- e pardona a nos nostre debitas
- como nos pardona a nostre debitores,
- e non duce nos in tentation,
- sed libera nos del mal.
- Irregularities and exceptions in Interlingua
- International auxiliary language
- Esperanto and Interlingua compared
- Falk, Julia S. Women, Language and Linguistics: Three American stories from the first half of the twentieth century. Routledge, London & New York: 1999.
- Gode, Alexander, et al. Interlingua-English: a dictionary of the international language. Storm Publishers, New York, 1951.
- Gode, Alexander, and Hugh E. Blair. Interlingua: a grammar of the international language. Storm Publishers, New York, 1951.
- Gopsill, F.P. Le historia antenatal de Interlingua.. (In Interlingua.) Accessed 28 May 2005.
- International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). General Report. IALA, New York: 1945.
- Pei, Mario. One Language for the World and How To Achieve It. Devin-Adair, New York; 1958.
- Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI). Interlingua 2001: communication sin frontieras durante 50 annos (in Interlingua). Accessed 3 December 2005.
- Union Mundial pro Interlingua, the official site of the UMI.
- Interlingua-English: a dictionary of the international language.
- Interlingua: a grammar of the international language.
- Directory of websites in Interlingua at Open Directory Project
- Google in Interlingua
- The europa.* Usenet hierarchy, which uses Interlingua for the denomination of its newsgroups and as one of the documentation languages
- Internodio A website in Interlingua containing news items, of which some are also in audio (occasionally updated)
- Omniglot article on Interlingua
- wikibooks English-Interlingua dictionary
- Adapted from the Wikipedia article, "Interlingua" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlingua, used under the GNU Free Documentation License</option><option>
Template:Infobox/typo/languoid Interlingua es un lingua auxiliar international naturalistic basate super le vocabulos commun al major linguas europee e super un grammatica anglo-romanic simple, initialmente publicate in 1951 per International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
Interlingua es le resultato del labores de 15 annos de un equipa international de linguistas.
Interlingua (= "International Lingua") es intendite que illo debe devenir un lingua commun del mundo pro succeder in servir le humanitate, ma non un sol lingua commun.
Appellate a vices Interlingua de IALA pro distinguer lo del altere usos del parola, illo es le subjecto de iste articulo e le lingua de iste encyclopedia integre. Le linguistas, qui ha create Interlingua, ha laborate in le organisation IALA (International Auxiliary Language Association), que esseva establite in 1924).
Anque Latino sine Flexione de Giuseppe Peano esseva anteriormente appellate Interlingua, ma iste denomination cadeva in disuso post le publication de Interlingua (de IALA). Le nomine 'Interlingua' esseva usate con le permission del Academia de Interlingua, le academia del lingua auxiliar de Giuseppe Peano.
Specimen de Interlingua
Patre nostre, qui es in le celos,
|Le multo traducite Patrenostre|
Le hereditage linguistic commun de Europa e del Americas es greco-latin. Le latino que ha supervivite in le linguas moderne es registrate in un libro del instituto scientific IALA (International Auxiliary Language Association) per linguistas e philologos professional, qui laborava inter 1924 e 1951.
Le resultato se nomina interlingua. Su grammatica es simplificate al maximo, e un europeo o americano instruite comprende immediatemente un texto technic o scientific in interlingua a prime vista e apprende su uso active in tempore brevissime.
Su utilitate practic se ha demonstrate como lingua de summarios in publicationes scientific, super toto in le campo medical, e como lingua unic in conferentias international.
In le instruction de linguas illo presenta un via rapide al vocabulario international (in le gymnasios svedese un subjecto independente) e un excellente preparation pro le studio de linguas romanic e in le studio avantiate del anglese.
Template:AP Post le Guerra Mundial I il habeva un crescite interesse in le idea de un lingua auxiliar international. Multe linguistas, interprenditores, e scientistas se interessava in disveloppar un optime lingua auxiliar. Con lor appoio le International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) esseva formate in 1924 con le financiamento de Alice Vanderbilt Morris pro studiar iste question. Finalmente, post le fallimento de attinger compromissos inter le linguas auxiliar international existente, IALA ha decidite a producer su proprie lingua auxiliar usante principios scientific. Le idea non esseva a inventar le lingua auxiliar, mais a extraher su vocabulario del parolas international commun inter le major linguas de Europa e a standardisar lo. Como on diceva, "Il non es necesse de inventar un lingua auxiliar. Lo que es necesse es solmente que on extrahe lo."
Le recerca de disveloppamento ha comenciate in 1936 a Liverpool, Anglaterra, mais con le menacia de guerra, IALA ha movite su operationes de recerca a Nove York in 1939 sub le direction de E. Clark Stillman. In aquelle anno ille ha assemblate un equipa de linguistas pro facer le labores. In 1943 E. Clark Stillman e su assistante Dr. Alexander Gode ha finite un manual "Interlinguistic Standardization" que describeva lor concepto del maniera de extraher le parolas del linguas que illes credeva contineva le plus grande concentration de parolas international: anglese, francese, italiano, e espaniol/portugese.
Le labor continuava durante le Guerra Mundial II, mais Stillman ha partite de IALA in 1943 pro servir in le governamento del Statos Unite. Dr. Gode deveniva le director de recerca pro tempore. In 1945 un General Reporto de IALA ha revelate que le equipa habeva producite un vocabulario de plus que 20.000 parolas international.
In le interim recerca e experimentation esseva interprendite pro investigar plure variantes del lingua auxiliar international usante le vocabulario international. Iste variantes esseva
- Le variante naturalistic, totalmente prototypic.
- Un variante con minime regularisation e schematisation.
- Un variante con regularisation intermedie.
In 1946 un ben cognoscite linguista francese, Dr. André Martinet esseva empleate como le Director de Recerca pro producer un dictionario e un forma final pro le lingua auxiliar. Martinet ha conducte un sondage de opinion super le forma del lingua auxiliar, e le resultatos ha indicate que un lingua inter le totalmente naturalistic variante e un variante minimemente regularisate esserea favorate per le plus grande numero de personas.
In le fin de 1948 Dr. Alexander Gode ha assumite le final responsabilitate pro producer un dictionario del lingua auxiliar quando Dr. Martinet ha retornate al academia al Universitate Columbia. Sra. Alice V. Morris, qui ha essite le principal fortia e financiera de IALA, ha morite in Augusto de 1950 quando le forma final del dictionario esseva in preparation pro le imprimitores.
Le grammatica e vocabulario de Interlingua esseva publicate primarimente in 1951.
Dr. Gode, con su proprie moneta ha publicate le producto final, le Interlingua-English Dictionary in 1951, con circa 27.000 entratas, cuje formas es intermedie inter le formas del purmente prototypic variante e le variante con minime regularisation e modernisation.
Alexander Gode esseva un del promotores capital de iste effortio. Ille publicava un summario del grammatica, un dictionario unidirectional (Interlingua a anglese), e un libro introductori con le titulo Interlingua a Prime Vista.
Alexander Gode e Hugh Blair, qui ha essite le assistente personal de Sra. Alice Morris in su proprie recerca super linguas auxiliar, ha publicate al mesme tempore le Interlingua Grammar, que dava un forma concrete al lingua international.
- Articulo principal: Grammatica de Interlingua
Le articulo definite es sempre "le", e le articulo indefinite es sempre "un". Illo exhibi nulle accordo in forma con le substantivo sequente (non se cambia in plural o secundo genere).
|articulo definite||articulo indefinite|
|le patre||un patre|
|le infantes||un infante|
|le amicas||un amica|
Le grande majoritate del substantivos fini in un del vocales "-o" (fructo), "-a" (pagina), "-e" (libertate). "-o" occurre frequentemente. Quando le termination "-o" occurre in un parola que designa un esser MASCULIN, le correspondente FEMININ pote esser representate per le mesme parola con le termination substituite per "-a". Le PLURAL es formate per le addition de "-s". Si le substantivo ha final in un consonante le addition es "-es".
Le grande majoritate del adjectivos fini in le vocal "-e" (delicate, parve), o in un del consonantes -l, -n, -r, -c (equal, american, par, cyclic). Adjectivos placiate immediatemente presso un substantivo SEQUE le substantivo (normal e le plus frequente). Le adjectivo ha nulle INFLEXION o ACCORDO adjectival. (Le parve femina es belle. Parve feminas es belle.) Grados de comparation de adjectivos es exprimite per le adverbios plus e minus.
|grande||plus grande||le plus grande|
|bon||minus bon||le minus bon|
Le verbos in Interlingua non ha conjugation per pronomine. Totte le formas del verbo pro totte le pronomines: "io, tu. illo, nos, vos, illos" es identic. Le verbos in Interlingua fini a "-r" a infinitivo, e fini con "-a", "-e", o "-i" a presente, e le participio se forma con le fin "-te".
|io, tu, illo
nos, vos, illos
Le intention es que Interlingua sia, essentialmente, le "medio" de tote le linguas de origine europee.
Interlingua es un lingua naturalistic construite con parolas del vocabulario international (in uso in le linguas con le plus parlatores international in le mundo), e con un grammatica multe simple.
Le vocabulario de Interlingua es extrahite methodicamente sequer le regula de tres e le regula de duo, principalmente del anglese e del major linguas romanic, secundarimente del germano e del russo. Interlingua es un concretisation del vocabulario greco-latin commun que esseva incorporate durante millennios in tote le linguas de Europa e del Americas - le lingua international latente del scientia, technologia, e religion.
Derivation de parolas in Interlingua
|Lingua||Substantivo||Infinitivo||Participio||Subst. derivate||Maestro del action||Habilitate de action||Habilitate de action repetative||Infinitivo opposite||Adjectivo||Altere derivationes|
|EN||integer||to integr-ate||integr-ated||integr-ity||integr-ator||integr-able||re-integr-able||to des-integr-ate||integr-ing||whole, constituent|
|EN||song||to sing||sung||-||sing-er||sing-able||re-sing-able||to not sing||sing-ing||co-sing|
|PT||canto||cant-ar||cant-ado||cant-oria||cant-or||cant-ável||re-cant-ável||não cantar (incantável)||cant-ado||cantar-olar, cântico, cantiga|
|IA||labor / travalio||labor- / travali-ar||labor- / travali-ate||labor-atorio||labor- / travali-ator||labor- / travali-abile||re-labor-abile||non-laborar (non-laborabile)||labor-e , labor-iose / travali-ose||co-laborar, e-laborar, labor-iositate|
|EN||work||to work||work-ed||laboratory||work-er||work-able||re-work-able||non-work||work-ing , laborious||collaborate, elaborate|
|PT||labor (labuta) / trabalho||labor-ar (labutar) / trabalh-ar||e-labor-ado (labuta-do) / trabalh-ado||labor-atório||labor-ador (labuta-dor) / trabalh-ador||labor-ável / trabalh-ável||ree-labor-ável / re-trabalh-ável||não elaborar / trabalhar (intrabalhável)||labori-oso trabalh-oso (trabalheira)||co-laborar, e-laborar, labor-iosidade, trabalh-ismo / -ista|
Le Union Mundial pro Interlingua ha representantes e membros in cinque continentes. Un ample litteratura - traducite e original - existe in interlingua, e illo es usate como un qualcunque altere lingua in parlar e scriber. Il ha sitos web e magazines national e international in interlingua.
Pioneros de interlingua
Alicun del pioneros de interlingua es:
- Alice Vanderbilt Morris
- Alice Morris Sturges
- Alexander Gode-von-Aesch
- André Schild
- Engelbert Pigal
- Hugh Blair
- Hugo Fischer
- Leland Yeager
- Ric Berger
- Stanley Mulaik
- Stefano Bakonyi
Litteratura in Interlingua
Lectura in Interlingua
- Locutiones e proverbios
- Publicationes in interlingua
- Wikibooks in Interlingua, textos e libros complete
- Adjuta:Referentias pro apprender interlingua
- Portal:Cursos de Interlingua
Periodicos in interlingua
- Panorama in interlingua
- Pro Biblia
- Actualitates — Interlingua i Norden
- Voce de Interlingua
- Interlingua Institute Report
- Heraldo de Interlingua
- Contacto - Super Interlingua
- Lingua e Vita
- Vias boreal
- Bibliographia de Interlingua
Jornales con summarios in interlingua
Jornales con summarios in interlingua de omne articulos original, lista assemblate in le estate 1957 per Science Service: American Heart Journal (desde 1955), American Journal of Clinical Pathology (1956), American Journal of the Medical Sciences (1955), Annals of Internal Medicine, Lancaster (1955), Archivos Peruanos de Patología y Clínica (1954), Blood (1954), Journal of Hematology, New York (1954), Circulation, American Heart Association (1955), Circulation Research, American Heart Association (1956), Clinical Orthopædics, Philadelphia (1955), Diabetes, American Diabetes Association (1955), Journal of Dental Medicine, New York (1954), Pediatrics, Springfield, Illinois (1955), Quarterly Bulletin of Sea View Hospital, New York (1953), Radiology, Syracuse, New York (1957), Revista Cubana de Cardiología (1955), Science News Letter, Washington (1955), West Indian Medical Journal, Jamaica (1957).
Altere periodicos, trovate in altere fontes: Archivos Peruanos de Patología y Clínica, Giornale Italiano di Chimioterapia, Revista Medical de Valparaiso (Chile), Hematologia Polonica (Polonia), Danish Medical Bulletin (Danmark), Arthritis and Rheumatism.
- Lista de parlatores de interlingua
- Questiones frequente super interlingua
- Societate Britannic pro Interlingua
- Wiktionary (Dictionarios Interlingua<-->altere linguas)
- Union Mundial pro Interlingua: http://www.interlingua.com/
- Foro de Interlingua: http://www.interforo.org/
- Curso de Interlingua: http://www.geocities.ws/hkyson/curso.htm
- Interlingua-English Dictionary: http://www.interlingua.com/ied/
- cercabile: http://www.interlingua.com/ied/ied.php
- Panorama in Interlingua (revista): http://www.interlingua.com/panorama/
- Servicio de Libros UMI: http://www.interlingua.com/libros/
- Academia pro Interlingua: http://groups.google.com/group/academiaprointerlingua/
- WIKia del Academia pro Interlingua: http://interlingua.wikia.com/
- Academia pro Interlingua in America: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/academiaprointerlingua/
- CafeShops de Interlingua: http://www.cafeshops.com/interlingua/
- Interlingua in DMoz: http://search.dmoz.org/cgi-bin/search?search=interlingua
- INTERLNG, le principal lista de discussiones general in Interlingua: http://listserv.icors.org/archives/interlng.html
- In Yahoo! Groups: http://groups.yahoo.com/search?query=interlingua
- Pro parlatores de germano: http://mailman.aki-stuttgart.de/mailman/listinfo/interlingua-ger
- Interlingua multilingue Iste sito se dedica al pedagogia de interlingua e su linguas fonte (le latino e le linguas angloromanic) per le uso de textos parallel in interlingua e al minus un de su linguas fonte. (Harleigh Kyson Jr.)