Means of production

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In Marxism, means of production refers to all of the things that labor uses to make products. Means of production consists of two categories of things:

  • Instruments of labor – tools, as well as facilities such as buildings, roads, etc.
  • Subjects of labor – the materials worked on. These may be naturally occurring or the products of previous human labor.

Under capitalism or fascism, the means of production are owned by the bourgeoisie.


"If we examine the whole process from the point of view of its result, it is plain that both the instruments and the subject of labor, are means of production ...." (Marx, Capital, c vii, s 1. P 181 in Progress Publishers, Moscow, edition.)

es:Medio de producción